For this website we have sourced many different forms of reference, including newspapers, books, journal articles, newsletters, magazines, government reports and personal correspondence. The secondary sources such as books and articles are useful to draw in information from many primary sources and provide a modern analysis of these. The text resources provide mostly a non-Aboriginal commentary. Much of the Aboriginal material has been obtained as audio comments from members of the Bundjalung community.


  1. Kaye Mundine
  2. Elsie Madden
  3. Gloria Strachen

as well as others who recorded in the focus groups, whose material will be available soon.

References from the newspaper Clarence and Richmond Examiner are from Trove.

Text References:

  1. Jennifer Hoff (2006). Bundjalung Jugun (Country). Published by Richmond River Historical Society (RRHS) Inc. PO Box 467 Lismore 2480
  2. Binnie O'Dwyer (March 2007). Aboriginal Heritage Under Threat in NSW. Chain Reaction. pp22-3
  3. Louise Tiffany Daley (1966). Men and a River: A History of the Richmond River District 1828-95. Melbourne University Press. Available Richmond River Historical Society
  4. N.C. Keats (1990) "WOLLUMBIN" The creation and early habitation of the Tweed, Brunswick and Richmond Rivers of NSW. Available at AIATSIS
  5. Federal Parliament (1984) The Effects of Asbestos Mining on the Baryulgil Community. Report of the House of Representatives. Standing Committee on Aboriginal Affairs October. Chapter 2 The History of the Baryulgil Community in relation to the Mine and Mill
  6. Bundjalung News Vol 1, 1 (1977) N.R.C.A.E. Institute of Aboriginal Education,' P.O, Box 157. LISMORE
  7. Charinga Official Journal of the Aboriginal Progressive Association No 4 May June 1966 from AIATSIS
  8. Romancing of the Cedars extract from RRHS
  9. George Farwell (1973) SQUATTER'S CASTLE The saga of a pastoral dynasty Angus and Robertson Publishers.
  10. The Grafton Report Report on Consultations held on 28 November 1998 in the Clarence Valley. Premiers Council for Women
  11. Aboriginal Institute Newsletter 1st edition March 1979
  12. Bruce Elder, (2003, third edition) Blood on the Wattle: Massacres and maltreatment of Aboriginal Australians since 1788, New Holland Press.
  13. Sharpe M, BUNDJALUNG SETTLEMENT AND MIGRATION in Aboriginal History Vol 9 1985 pp 101-113.
  14. Robinson, Roland (1965). The Man Who Sold His Dreaming, Rigby, Sydney
  15. Astbury, Leigh () "Constructing the Other. Race and Representation". Photofiles: an Australia photography reader. Ed. Blair French, Power Publications and the Australian Centre for Photography, pp 185-9.
  16. Aboriginal king plate inscribed: Bobby, chief of the Yulgilbar tribe from the National Library of Australia.
  17. Heron, Ronald. (1993) My Aboriginal People and our culture: Aspects of Aboriginal Cultural Heritage of the Lower Clarence Valley. A Report prepared for the Lower Clarence Aboriginal Youth Service, NSW NPWS and ANCA.
  18. RRHS Bulletin No 127 Sept 1988 and No 129 March 1989
  19. Stephan Schnierer, Adam Faulkner and Chris Fisher Aboriginal Cultural Values of the Native Vegetation of NSW of the Indigenous Environmental Research Centre at Southern Cross University, Lismore.
  20. Alex Roberts, with input from Kath Schilling. Aboriginal Women's Fishing in New South Wales A thematic history, for the The Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water NSW May 2010
  21. Ronald E. Davies. History of Clarence River and of Grafton 1830-1880. Reprint from the "Daily Examiner," Grafton, Wednesday, January 2, 1957. Forty-five pts. Available National Library Bib ID: 1826285
  22. Aboriginals of the Clarence River. The first settlers. Clarence River Historical Society. Newspaper excerpts from the Daily Examiner (Grafton, N.S.W.), Oct. 3, 1934; July 23, 1935. Available from the national Library Bib ID JAF BROADSIDE 80 (2171453)
  23. R.C. Law, Toolbillibam : savage won by tact National Library Reference JAFp HIST 429 (648934)
  24. Dodd, Narrative from the Steger family via Marionne Diggles of Toowoomba. Roots Website
  25. Logging Terania (AIATSIS)
  26. Malcolm Calley (1956) Economic Life of Mixed-Blood Communities in Northern New South Wales, Oceania, Vol. 26, No. 3 March, pp. 200-213, Oceania Publications, University of Sydney.
  27. Malcolm J. C. Calley (1957) Race Relations on the North Coast of New South Wales, Oceania, Vol. 27, No. 3 March, pp. 190-209, Oceania Publications, University of Sydney.
  28. C.D.Rowley (1970) Destruction of Aboriginal Society, Aborigines in Australian Society, Volume 1, Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  29. Bawden, Thomas, Three Lectures on the Early History of the Clarence, University of New England.
  30. Tindal Family Letters, Mitchell Library.
  31. Yulgilbar Sheep Journal, Mitchell Library,